Minnesota Checklist

 
Order Anseriformes
Family Anatidae: Whistling-Ducks, Geese, Swans, Ducks
Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis)C
Ten records: 2 spring, 1 spring-summer, and 7 fall. Seven of these records involved birds of uncertain origin. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2011.
Fulvous Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna bicolor)Ao
One spring (1929) and 1 fall (1950) record.
Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons)R
Migrant mostly south and west.
Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens)R
Migrant throughout, but rare north-central.
Ross's Goose (Chen rossii)R
Migrant mostly south and west.
Brant (Branta bernicla)C
Eighteen records: 7 spring, 1 summer, 9 fall, and 1 fall-winter. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2012.
Cackling Goose (Branta hutchinsii)R
Migrant throughout.
*Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)R
Breeds throughout. Locally overwinters.
*Mute Swan (Cygnus olor)Rr
Introduced in North America. Rare at any season; some records likely involve birds of captive origin. One breeding record (1988).
*Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator)R
Former summer resident (pre-1900). Reintroduced in Minnesota. Breeds throughout, but rare in the far west and southeast. Winters locally. State designation: Special Concern.
*ITundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus)R
Migrant throughout but rare southwest. Two breeding records (1932, 1956), both involving an injured bird.
*Wood Duck (Aix sponsa)R
Breeds throughout.
*Gadwall (Anas strepera)R
Breeds mostly west and central. Migrant throughout.
Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope)C
Thirty records: 22 spring, 4 summer, and 4 fall. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2009.
*American Wigeon (Anas americana)R
Breeds mostly north. Migrant throughout.
*American Black Duck (Anas rubripes)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout but rare southwest. Winter visitant mostly south.
*Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)R
Breeds throughout. Locally overwinters.
*Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors)R
Breeds throughout.
Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera)Rr
Rare summer visitant and migrant, primarily in spring.
*Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata)R
Breeds mostly west. Migrant throughout.
*Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)R
Breeds mostly west. Migrant throughout.
Garganey (Anas querquedula)A
Two spring records (1987, 1993).
*Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca)R
Rare breeder throughout except southeast. Migrant throughout. Migrant throughout.
*Canvasback (Aythya valisineria)R
Breeds mostly west and central. Migrant throughout but rare northeast.
*Redhead (Aythya americana)R
Breeds mostly west and central. Migrant throughout.
*Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris)R
Breeds throughout except far south. Migrant throughout.
Greater Scaup (Aythya marila)R
Migrant throughout.
*Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis)R
Breeds northwest. Migrant throughout.
King Eider (Somateria spectabilis)C
Twenty-one records: 3 spring, 12 fall, and 6 winter. Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013. Three additional records of Somateria sp.
Common Eider (Somateria mollissima)A
Four fall records. Last recorded 1966. Three additional records of Somateria sp.
Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus)Rr
Rare migrant and winter visitant primarily on Lake Superior.
Surf Scoter (Melanitta perspicillata)R
Migrant primarily on Lake Superior, rare elsewhere.
White-winged Scoter (Melanitta fusca)R
Migrant primarily on Lake Superior, rare elsewhere.
Black Scoter (Melanitta americana)R
Migrant primarily on Lake Superior, rare elsewhere.
Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis)R
Migrant and winter visitant, primarily on Lake Superior.
*Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola)R
Breeds locally, mostly northwest. Migrant throughout.
*Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula)R
Breeds north. Migrant throughout, and locally overwinters.
Barrow's Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica)R
Migrant mostly northeast, east-central, and southeast. Winters locally. Formerly Casual.
Smew (Mergellus albellus)Ao
One spring record (1999).
*Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus)R
Breeds throughout. Migrant throughout.
*Common Merganser (Mergus merganser)R
Breeds mostly north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout, and locally overwinters.
*Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator)R
Breeds northeast mostly Lake Superior. Migrant throughout, and locally overwinters.
*Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis)R
Breeds mostly west and central. Migrant throughout but rare north-central and northeast.
 
Order Galliformes
Family Odontophoridae: New World Quail
*Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus)E
Former permanent resident south. All recent observations are likely of released or escaped birds.
 
Family Phasianidae: Partridge, Pheasants, Grouse, Turkeys
*Gray Partridge (Perdix perdix)R
Introduced in North America. Permanent resident south and west.
*Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)R
Introduced in North America. Permanent resident mostly south and central.
*Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus)R
Permanent resident north and east.
*Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis)R
Permanent resident far north.
Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus)A
Winter-spring invasion 1933–1934 (more than 200 individuals). Two additional records: 1 spring (1914) and 1 winter-spring (1964).
Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta)A
One spring record (1996).
*Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus)R
Permanent resident mostly northwest, north-central, and east-central.
*Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido)R
Breeds locally. Permanent resident west-central. Re-introductions ongoing west. State designation: Special Concern.
*Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)R
Introduced in Minnesota. Permanent resident throughout, but absent far north.
 
Order Gaviiformes
Family Gaviidae: Loons
Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata)Rr
Rare migrant, primarily on Lake Superior in spring and early summer.
Pacific Loon (Gavia pacifica)Rr
Rare migrant, primarily on Lake Superior in fall.
*Common Loon (Gavia immer)R
Breeds north and central. Migrant throughout.
Yellow-billed Loon (Gavia adamsii)A
Six records: 5 fall and 1 winter. One record (2005) in the last 10 years.
 
Order Podicipediformes
Family Podicipedidae: Grebes
*Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps)R
Breeds throughout.
*Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus)R
Rarely breeds northwest. Migrant throughout. State designation: Endangered.
*Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps grisegena)R
Breeds mostly north and central. Migrant throughout.
*Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis)R
Breeds mostly west. Migrant throughout, but rare northeast.
*Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis)R
Breeds west. Migrant throughout, but rare northeast.
*HClark's Grebe (Aechmophorus clarkii)Rr
Rare migrant, mostly west. A few breeding records, all possibly involving hybrid pairings with Western Grebe (A. occidentalis).
 
Order Ciconiiformes
Family Ciconiidae: Storks
Wood Stork (Mycteria americana)A
One summer record (2004). Federal designation: Endangered.
 
Order Suliformes
Family Fregatidae: Frigatebirds
Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens)A
One fall record (2007). Three additional fall records of Fregata sp.
 
Family Phalacrocoracidae: Cormorants
Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)C
Five records: 2 spring, 1 summer-fall, and 2 fall. Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2012.
*Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus)R
Breeds throughout.
 
Order Pelecaniformes
Family Pelecanidae: Pelicans
*American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos)R
Breeds locally mostly west. Migrant throughout. State designation: Special Concern.
Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis)C
Four records: 2 spring and 2 summer. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013. Formerly Accidental.
 
Family Ardeidae: Bitterns, Herons, Egrets, Night-Herons
*American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus)R
Breeds mostly north and central. Migrant throughout.
*Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis)R
Breeds throughout except northeast.
*Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)R
Breeds throughout.
*Great Egret (Ardea alba)R
Breeds south and west. Migrant throughout, but rare northeast.
*Snowy Egret (Egretta thula)Rr
Rare migrant mostly south and west. Three breeding records (1977, 1978, 1986).
*Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea)Rr
Rare migrant mostly south. Last breeding record 1981.
Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor)A
Sixteen records: 9 spring, 1 spring-summer, 5 summer, and 1 summer-fall. Recorded in two (2007, 2012) of the last 10 years. Formerly Casual.
*Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis)Rr
Rare migrant mostly south and west. Rarely breeds.
*Green Heron (Butorides virescens)R
Breeds throughout but absent far northeast.
*Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)R
Breeds locally south and west.
*Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (Nyctanassa violacea)Rr
Rare migrant south and summer resident mostly southeast. Last breeding record 1984.
 
Family Threskiornithidae: Ibises
White Ibis (Eudocimus albus)A
One spring record (1995).
Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus)C
Seven spring records. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013. Formerly Accidental. There are additional records of unidentified Plegadis sp.
*White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi)Rr
Rare migrant mostly west and south. Two breeding records (1894, 1895). There are additional records of unidentified Plegadis sp.
 
Order Accipitriformes
Family Cathartidae: New World Vultures
Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus)C
Six records, 5 spring, 1 fall. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2011.
*Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)R
Breeds throughout but rare far northwest.
 
Family Pandionidae: Osprey
*Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)R
Breeds mostly north-central, northeast, and east-central. Reintroduced in Twin Cities. Migrant throughout.
 
Family Accipitridae: Kites, Accipiters, Hawks, Eagles
*Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus)A
Former summer resident. Eighteen records since 1900: 7 spring, 1 spring-fall, 3 summer, 6 fall, and 1 undated. Recorded in two (2007, 2008) of the last 10 years. Formerly Casual.
White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus)A
Three records: 2 spring and 1 summer. Two records (2008, 2011) in the last 10 years. .
Mississippi Kite (Ictinia mississippiensis)C
Thirty-eight records: 12 spring, 3 summer, and 23 fall. Recorded in 7 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
*Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)R
Breeds throughout. Winter visitant throughout.
*Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus)R
Breeds throughout.
*Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus)R
Breeds north. Winter visitant mostly south.
*Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)R
Breeds throughout. Winter visitant mostly south.
*Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis)R
Breeds locally north-central and northeast. Irruptive migrant and winter visitant mostly north. State designation: Special Concern.
*Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus)R
Breeds south, east, and central. Winter visitant mostly southeast. State designation: Special Concern.
*Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus)R
Breeds north, central, and east. Migrant throughout.
*Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni)R
Breeds mostly west. Migrant throughout, but rare north-central and northeast.
*Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)R
Breeds throughout. Winter visitant mostly south.
Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis)C
Former Regular migrant and summer visitant mostly west. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus)R
Migrant and winter visitant throughout.
Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)Rr
Rare migrant throughout. Winter visitant mostly southeast.
 
Order Gruiformes
Family Rallidae: Rails, Gallinules, Coots
*Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis)R
Breeds northwest and north-central. Rare migrant throughout. State designation: Special Concern.
Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis)A
Seven records: 4 spring, 1 summer, and 2 fall. Last recorded 1979.
*King Rail (Rallus elegans)A
Former summer resident south. Last breeding record 1976. Last recorded 1992. State designation: Endangered.
*Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola)R
Breeds throughout.
*Sora (Porzana carolina)R
Breeds throughout.
Purple Gallinule (Porphyrio martinicus)A
Three records: 1 summer and 2 fall. Last recorded 1970.
*Common Gallinule (Gallinula galeata)Rr
Breeds locally south. Declining. State designation: Special Concern.
*American Coot (Fulica americana)R
Breeds throughout except northeast. Migrant throughout.
 
Family Gruidae: Cranes
*Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis)R
Breeds north, central, and east. Migrant throughout.
*Whooping Crane (Grus americana)A
Former summer resident west. Ten records since 1900: 5 spring, 4 fall, and 1 undated. Recorded in two (2007, 2010) of the last 10 years. Reports of individuals from experimental Wisconsin population not included. Federal designation: Endangered.
 
Order Charadriiformes
Family Recurvirostridae: Stilts, Avocets
Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus)C
Twenty-three records: 20 spring and 3 summer. Recorded in 8 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
*American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana)R
Rare breeder west. Migrant mostly west.
 
Family Charadriidae: Plovers
Black-bellied Plover (Pluvialis squatarola)R
Migrant throughout.
American Golden-Plover (Pluvialis dominica)R
Migrant throughout.
*Snowy Plover (Charadrius nivosus)C
Eleven records: 5 spring, 5 summer, and 1 fall. One breeding record (2006). Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2009.
Wilson's Plover (Charadrius wilsonia)A
Three records: 2 spring and 1 summer. Recorded in one (2013) of the last 10 years.
Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus)R
Migrant throughout.
*Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus)Rr
Breeds rarely on Lake of the Woods. Rare migrant throughout. State designation: Endangered. Federal designations: Great Lakes population, Endangered; Northern Great Plains population, Threatened.
*Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus)R
Breeds throughout.
 
Family Scolopacidae: Sandpipers
*Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius)R
Breeds throughout.
*Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa solitaria)R
Migrant throughout. Three breeding records (1973,1982, 2012)
Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca)R
Migrant throughout.
*Willet (Tringa semipalmata)R
Migrant throughout. Former summer resident south and west.
Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes)R
Migrant throughout.
*Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda)R
Breeds mostly west.
Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis)Es
Former spring migrant west. Last recorded 1886. Federal designation: Endangered.
Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus)Rr
Rare migrant mostly on Lake Superior, primarily in spring.
*Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus)A
Former summer resident. Twenty-five records since 1900: 18 spring, 3 summer, and 4 fall. Recorded in two (2005, 2008) of the last 10 years. Formerly Casual.
Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica)R
Migrant mostly west, primarily in spring.
*Marbled Godwit (Limosa fedoa)R
Breeds northwest, west-central, and central. Migrant mostly west. State designation: Special Concern.
Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres)R
Migrant throughout.
Red Knot (Calidris canutus)Rr
Rare migrant throughout.
Ruff (Calidris pugnax)C
Forty-six records: 27 spring, 9 summer, and 10 fall. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2012.
Stilt Sandpiper (Calidris himantopus)R
Migrant throughout.
Curlew Sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea)A
Three spring records. Recorded in two (2004, 2006) of the last 10 years.
Sanderling (Calidris alba)R
Migrant throughout.
Dunlin (Calidris alpina)R
Migrant throughout.
Purple Sandpiper (Calidris maritima)C
Seven records: 5 fall, 1 winter, and 1 spring. Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2012. Formerly Accidental.
Baird's Sandpiper (Calidris bairdii)R
Migrant throughout.
Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla)R
Migrant throughout.
White-rumped Sandpiper (Calidris fuscicollis)R
Migrant throughout, primarily in spring.
Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Calidris subruficollis)R
Rare fall migrant throughout.
Pectoral Sandpiper (Calidris melanotos)R
Migrant throughout.
Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla)R
Migrant throughout.
Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri)C
Eight records: 4 spring, 1 summer, and 3 fall. Prior to status change from Regular to Accidental in 1988 there were numerous undocumented reports. Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
Short-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus)R
Migrant throughout.
Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus scolopaceus)R
Migrant throughout.
*Wilson's Snipe (Gallinago delicata)R
Breeds throughout except far south. Migrant throughout.
*American Woodcock (Scolopax minor)R
Breeds throughout except far south. Migrant throughout.
*Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor)R
Breeds locally west and central. Migrant throughout but rare in the northeast. State designation: Threatened.
Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus)R
Migrant throughout,
Red Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius)C
Seventeen records: 3 spring and 14 fall. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2009.
 
Family Stercorariidae: Jaegers
Pomarine Jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus)C
Twenty records: 1 spring, 1 summer, and 18 fall. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2011. There are additional records of unidentified Stercorarius sp.
Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus)Rr
Rare migrant mostly in Duluth, primarily in fall. There are additional records of unidentified Stercorarius sp.
Long-tailed Jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus)A
Ten records: 1 spring, 2 summer, and 7 fall. Recorded in two (2007, 2013) of the last 10 years. There are additional records of unidentified Stercorarius sp.
 
Family Alcidae: Alcids
Dovekie (Alle alle)A
Two fall records (1931, 1962).
Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle)A
One fall record (2009).
Long-billed Murrelet (Brachyramphus perdix)A
One fall record (2008).
Ancient Murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus)A
Seven records: 6 fall and 1 winter. Last recorded 1999.
 
Family Laridae: Gulls, Terns
Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)C
Thirty-nine records: 3 spring, 1 summer, 25 fall, and 10 winter. Recorded in 6 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea)A
Eleven records: 1 spring and 10 winter. Recorded in one (2008) of the last 10 years.
Sabine's Gull (Xema sabini)R
Rare fall migrant throughout. Formerly Casual.
Bonaparte's Gull (Chroicocephalus philadelphia)R
Migrant throughout.
Black-headed Gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)A
Fourteen records, all from Jackson County: 3 spring, 1 spring-summer, 1 summer-fall, and 9 fall. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007. Formerly Casual.
*Little Gull (Hydrocoloeus minutus)Rr
Rare migrant, mostly at Duluth in spring. One breeding record (1986).
Ross's Gull (Rhodostethia rosea)A
Three records: 2 spring and 1 winter. Recorded in one (2007) of the last 10 years.
Laughing Gull (Leucophaeus atricilla)C
Seventeen records: 8 spring, 3 summer, and 6 fall. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013. Formerly Accidental.
*Franklin's Gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan)R
Breeds locally west. Migrant throughout, but rare northeast. State designation: Special Concern.
Mew Gull (Larus canus)A
Three records: 2 fall and 1 winter. Last recorded 1998.
*Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis)R
Breeds locally, mostly north. Migrant throughout.
California Gull (Larus californicus)C
Forty records: 18 spring, 4 summer, 16 fall, and 2 fall-winter. Recorded in 8 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
*Herring Gull (Larus argentatus)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout and winter visitant.
Thayer's Gull (Larus thayeri)R
Migrant and winter visitant, primarily on Lake Superior and in Twin Cities.
Iceland Gull (Larus glaucoides)Rr
Rare migrant and winter visitant primarily on Lake Superior and in Twin Cities.
Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus)Rr
Rare migrant, primarily on Lake Superior and in Twin Cities.
Slaty-backed Gull (Larus schistisagus)C
Eight records: 1 spring, 1 summer-fall, 1 fall-winter, 4 winter, and 1 winter-spring. Recorded in 6 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013. Formerly Accidental.
Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens)A
Five records: 1 spring, 2 fall-winter, and 2 winter. Recorded in two (2009, 2011) of the last 10 years.
Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus)R
Migrant and winter visitant, primarily on Lake Superior and in Twin Cities.
Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus)Rr
Rare migrant and winter visitant, primarily on Lake Superior.
Least Tern (Sternula antillarum)A
Twenty-one records: 4 spring, 11 summer, and 6 fall. Recorded in two (2005, 2006) of the last 10 years. Federal status: Endangered. Formerly Casual.
*Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia)R
Breeds very locally north-central and central. Migrant throughout.
*Black Tern (Chlidonias niger)R
Breeds throughout except far northeast.
*Common Tern (Sterna hirundo)R
Breeds locally north. Migrant throughout. State designation: Threatened.
Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea)C
Twenty-six records: 10 spring, 3 spring-summer, 6 summer, and 7 fall. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
*Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri)R
Breeds mostly west, central, and south-central. Migrant throughout. State designation: Special Concern.
Sandwich Tern (Thalasseus sandvicensis)A
One summer record (1986).
Elegant Tern (Thalasseus elegans)A
One summer record (2007).
 
Order Columbiformes
Family Columbidae: Pigeons, Doves
*Rock Pigeon (Columba livia)R
Introduced in North America. Permanent resident throughout.
Band-tailed Pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata)A
Eleven records: 1 spring, 3 summer, 6 fall, and 1 fall-spring. Recorded in two (2009, 2011) of the last 10 years.
*Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)R
Introduced in North America. Permanent resident mostly south and west.
*Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius)X
Extinct. Former migrant and summer resident. Last specimen record 1895.
Inca Dove (Columbina inca)A
One fall record (2007).
Common Ground-Dove (Columbina passerina)A
Four fall records. Recorded in three (2004, 2005, 2010) of the last ten years.
White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica)C
Twenty-three records, 10 spring, 5 summer, and 8 fall. Recorded in 9 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
*Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura)R
Breeds throughout. Winter visitant mostly south.
 
Order Cuculiformes
Family Cuculidae: Cuckoos
*Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus)R
Breeds mostly south, central, and west.
*Black-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus erythropthalmus)R
Breeds throughout.
Groove-billed Ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris)A
Eight records: 1 summer and 7 fall. Two additional records of Crotophaga sp. Last recorded 1995.
 
Order Strigiformes
Family Tytonidae: Barn Owls
*Barn Owl (Tyto alba)A
Former summer resident south and east-central. Last breeding record 1991. Recorded in two (2006, 2013) of the last ten years.
 
Family Strigidae: Screech-Owls, Owls
*Eastern Screech-Owl (Megascops asio)R
Permanent resident throughout, but absent north-central and northeast.
*Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus)R
Permanent resident throughout.
Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus)R
Irruptive winter visitant mostly north.
*Northern Hawk Owl (Surnia ulula)R
Rare breeder northeast and northwest. Irruptive winter visitant mostly north.
*Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia)C
Former summer resident southwest and west-central. Recorded in 7 of the last 10 years, most recently 2011. State designation: Endangered.
*Barred Owl (Strix varia)R
Permanent resident throughout, but absent southwest.
*Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa)R
Permanent resident north-central and northeast; irruptive in winter north.
*Long-eared Owl (Asio otus)R
Breeds throughout but absent southwest. Winter visitant throughout but rare north.
*Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus)R
Breeds northwest. Rare migrant throughout. State designation: Special Concern.
*Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus)Rr
Permanent resident northeast; irruptive in winter mostly north. State designation: Special Concern.
*Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus)R
Permanent resident north-central and northeast. Rare breeder east-central and southeast. Migrant and winter visitant throughout.
 
Order Caprimulgiformes
Family Caprimulgidae: Nightjars
*Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor)R
Breeds throughout. Declining.
Common Poorwill (Phalaenoptilus nuttallii)A
One spring record (1963).
Chuck-will's-widow (Antrostomus carolinensis)A
Five summer records: four from the same locality in successive years (1981–1984). Last recorded 1984.
*Eastern Whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferus)R
Breeds locally southeast, central, and north. Migrant throughout.
 
Order Apodiformes
Family Apodidae: Swifts
*Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica)R
Breeds throughout.
White-throated Swift (Aeronautes saxatalis)A
One spring record (2000).
 
Family Trochilidae: Hummingbirds
Green Violetear (Colibri thalassinus)A
Two records: 1 summer (2004) and 1 summer-fall (2005).
Magnificent Hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens)A
Three summer records. Last recorded 1994.
*Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris)R
Breeds throughout.
Anna's Hummingbird (Calypte anna)A
Four records: 2 fall, 1 fall-winter, and 1 winter. Recorded in one (2006) of the last 10 years.
Costa's Hummingbird (Calypte costae)A
One fall record (2003).
Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus)A
Fourteen records: 5 summer, 1 summer-fall, and 8 fall. Recorded in two (2009, 2013) of the last 10 years. Three additional records of Selasphorus sp.
Calliope Hummingbird (Selasphorus calliope)A
One fall-winter record (1994).
 
Order Coraciiformes
Family Alcedinidae: Kingfishers
*Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon)R
Breeds throughout.
 
Order Piciformes
Family Picidae: Woodpeckers
Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis)A
Four records: 2 spring, 1 fall-winter, and 1 winter-spring. Recorded in one (2013) of the last 10 years.
*Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus)R
Breeds throughout but absent northeast. Winters locally.
Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus)A
One fall record (2009).
*Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus)R
Permanent resident throughout but rare far north and absent far southwest.
Williamson's Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus thyroideus)A
Three records: 2 spring and 1 fall. Last recorded 1999.
*Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius)R
Breeds throughout.
*Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens)R
Permanent resident throughout.
*Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus)R
Permanent resident throughout.
*American Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides dorsalis)Rr
Rare permanent resident north-central and northeast.
*Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus)R
Permanent resident north-central and northeast. Irruptive winter visitant.
*Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus)R
Breeds throughout.
*Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus)R
Permanent resident throughout but rare southwest.
 
Order Falconiformes
Family Falconidae: Caracaras, Falcons
Crested Caracara (Caracara cheriway)Aos
One summer record (1994).
*American Kestrel (Falco sparverius)R
Breeds throughout. Winter visitant mostly south.
*Merlin (Falco columbarius)R
Breeds mostly north. Migrant and winter visitant throughout.
Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus)C
Former Regular migrant and winter visitant, mostly north. Recorded in 7 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
*Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)R
Reintroduced. Breeds east. Migrant throughout. State designation: Special Concern.
Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus)Rr
Rare migrant mostly west.
 
Order Passeriformes
Family Tyrannidae: Flycatchers
*Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi)R
Breeds northeast and north-central. Migrant throughout.
*HWestern Wood-Pewee (Contopus sordidulus)A
Eight records: 1 spring-fall, 4 summer, and 3 fall. Two breeding records (1977, 2007), both involving an unidentified wood-pewee. Recorded in one (2007) of the last 10 years.
*Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens)R
Breeds throughout.
*Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris)R
Breeds northeast and north-central. Migrant throughout.
*Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens)R
Breeds southeast and east-central. State designation: Special Concern.
*Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum)R
Breeds north and central. Migrant throughout.
*Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii)R
Breeds south and west.
*Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus)R
Breeds throughout.
*Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe)R
Breeds throughout.
*Say's Phoebe (Sayornis saya)R
Rare migrant and summer visitant mostly west. Two breeding records (2010, 2011). Formerly Casual.
Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus)A
Three fall records. Last recorded 1994.
Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens)A
Two fall records (1990, 2000).
*Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus)R
Breeds throughout.
Tropical/Couch's Kingbird (Tyrannus sp.)A
One fall record (2011) of a bird that could not be identified to the species level.
Cassin's Kingbird (Tyrannus vociferans)A
One fall record (2012).
*Western Kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis)R
Breeds mostly west and central. Migrant throughout.
*Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus)R
Breeds throughout.
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus)C
Eighty-four records: 32 spring, 26 summer, 1 summer-fall, 24 fall, and 1 undated. One breeding attempt (1997), a mixed-pairing with Western Kingbird (T. verticalis). Recorded in 8 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
Fork-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus savana)A
Three records: 1 spring and 2 fall. Recorded in one (2009) of the last 10 years.
 
Family Laniidae: Shrikes
*Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus)R
Breeds locally west and south. State designation: Endangered.
Northern Shrike (Lanius excubitor)R
Migrant and winter visitant throughout.
 
Family Vireonidae: Vireos
*White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus)C
Fifty-four records: 34 spring, 1 spring-summer, 12 summer, 2 summer-fall, and 5 fall. Two breeding records (1991, 2001). Recorded in 8 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013. Formerly Regular.
*Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii)Rr
Breeds locally southeast and east-central. State designation: Special Concern.
*Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Blue-headed Vireo (Vireo solitarius)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus)R
Breeds throughout.
*Philadelphia Vireo (Vireo philadelphicus)R
Rare breeder northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus)R
Breeds throughout.
 
Family Corvidae: Jays, Nutcrackers, Magpies, Crows
*Gray Jay (Perisoreus canadensis)R
Permanent resident north-central and northeast.
*Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata)R
Permanent resident throughout.
Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana)A
Twenty-two records: 16 fall, 1 fall-spring, and 5 winter. Recorded in two (2004, 2012) of the last 10 years.
*Black-billed Magpie (Pica hudsonia)R
Permanent resident northwest, local north-central and northeast.
*American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)R
Permanent resident throughout.
*Common Raven (Corvus corax)R
Permanent resident mostly north.
 
Family Alaudidae: Larks
*Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris)R
Breeds south and west. Migrant throughout. Overwinters south and west.
 
Family Hirundinidae: Martins, Swallows
*Purple Martin (Progne subis)R
Breeds throughout except northeast. State designation: Special Concern.
*Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)R
Breeds throughout.
Violet-green Swallow (Tachycineta thalassina)As
Two records: 1 summer (1990) and 1 fall (1942).
*Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis)R
Breeds throughout.
*Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia)R
Breeds throughout.
*Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)R
Breeds throughout.
*Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)R
Breeds throughout.
 
Family Paridae: Chickadees, Titmice
*Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus)R
Permanent resident throughout.
*Boreal Chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus)R
Permanent resident north-central and northeast.
*Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor)Rr
Permanent resident southeast.
 
Family Sittidae: Nuthatches
*Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis)R
Permanent resident north-central, northeast, and east-central. Migrant and winter visitant throughout.
*White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis)R
Permanent resident throughout.
Pygmy Nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea)Ao
One fall record (1996).
 
Family Certhiidae: Creepers
*Brown Creeper (Certhia americana)R
Breeds north and east. Migrant and winter visitant throughout.
 
Family Troglodytidae: Wrens
*Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus)C
Twenty-seven records: 12 spring, 2 spring-summer, 1 spring-fall, 2 summer, and 10 fall. One breeding record (2004). Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2012.
*House Wren (Troglodytes aedon)R
Breeds throughout.
*Winter Wren (Troglodytes hiemalis)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis)R
Breeds throughout.
*Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris)R
Breeds throughout except the northeast.
*Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus)Rr
Rare in all seasons. Occasionally breeds, mostly southeast.
*Bewick's Wren (Thryomanes bewickii)A
Fifty-three records since 1900: 26 spring, 6 spring-summer, 12 summer, 7 fall, and 2 undated. Two breeding records (1950, 1959). Last recorded 1998.
 
Family Polioptilidae: Gnatcatchers
*Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea)R
Breeds mostly south and central. Migrant throughout but rare far north.
 
Family Cinclidae: Dippers
American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus)A
Three records: 2 summer and 1 winter-spring. Last recorded 1993.
 
Family Regulidae: Kinglets
*Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa)R
Breeds northeast and north-central. Migrant throughout.
*Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula)R
Breeds northeast and north-central. Migrant throughout.
 
Family Muscicapidae: Old World Flycatchers
Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe)A
Four records: 1 spring and 3 fall. Recorded in two (2005, 2010) of the last 10 years.
 
Family Turdidae: Thrushes
*Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis)R
Breeds throughout.
*Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides)Rr
Rare migrant throughout. One breeding record (1991); five mixed-pair breeding records with Eastern Bluebird (S. sialis).
Townsend's Solitaire (Myadestes townsendi)Rr
Rare migrant and winter visitant throughout.
*Veery (Catharus fuscescens)R
Breeds east and north. Migrant throughout.
Gray-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus)R
Migrant throughout
*Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina)R
Breeds mostly east and central.
Fieldfare (Turdus pilaris)A
One fall record (1991)
*American Robin (Turdus migratorius)R
Breeds throughout. Winter visitant throughout mostly south and central.
Varied Thrush (Ixoreus naevius)Rr
Rare migrant and winter visitant throughout.
 
Family Mimidae: Thrashers, Mockingbirds
*Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis)R
Breeds throughout.
Curve-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre)A
Four records: 1 spring, 1 fall, 1 fall-winter, and 1 fall-spring. Recorded in one (2006) of the last 10 years.
*Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum)R
Breeds throughout.
Sage Thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus)A
Twelve records: 5 spring, 3 summer, 3 fall, and 1 winter-spring. Recorded in two (2004, 2009) of the last 10 years. Formerly Casual.
*Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)Rr
Rare throughout in all seasons. Five breeding records.
 
Family Sturnidae: Starlings
*European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)R
Introduced in North America. Permanent resident throughout.
 
Family Motacillidae: Pipits
American Pipit (Anthus rubescens)R
Migrant throughout; more common fall.
*Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spragueii)C
Former summer resident northwest. Last breeding record 1988. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013. State designation: Endangered.
 
Family Bombycillidae: Waxwings
Bohemian Waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus)R
Irruptive winter visitant mostly north and central.
*Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum)R
Breeds throughout. Winter visitant mostly south and central.
 
Family Calcariidae: Longspurs and Snow Buntings
Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus)R
Migrant throughout. Winter visitant south and west.
*Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus)Rr
Breeds locally and almost entirely in Clay County. State designation: Endangered.
Smith's Longspur (Calcarius pictus)Rr
Rare migrant mostly west.
*McCown's Longspur (Rhynchophanes mccownii)A
Former summer resident southwest. Three records since 1900: 1 spring, 1 summer, and 1 fall. Last recorded in 2000.
Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis)R
Migrant and winter visitant throughout.
 
Family Parulidae: Warblers
*Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla)R
Breeds throughout but mostly absent far west and south-central. Migrant throughout.
Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitheros vermivorum)C
Sixty-two records: 56 spring, 2 summer, and 4 fall. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
*Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla)R
Breeds locally southeast, east-central, and south-central. State designation: Special Concern.
*Northern Waterthrush (Parkesia noveboracensis)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera)R
Breeds mostly north and east-central. Migrant throughout.
*Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera)R
Breeds southeast and east-central.
*Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia)R
Breeds north-central, northeast, and east-central. Migrant throughout.
*Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea)R
Breeds locally southeast, south-central, and east-central.
*Tennessee Warbler (Oreothlypis peregrina)R
Breeds locally northeast. Migrant throughout.
Orange-crowned Warbler (Oreothlypis celata)R
Migrant throughout.
*Nashville Warbler (Oreothlypis ruficapilla)R
Breeds mostly north and east-central. Migrant throughout.
*Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis)R
Breeds north-central and northeast except absent far northeast. Migrant throughout.
MacGillivray's Warbler (Geothlypis tolmiei)A
One spring record (1958).
*Mourning Warbler (Geothlypis philadelphia)R
Breeds north and east-central. Migrant throughout.
*Kentucky Warbler (Geothlypis formosa)Rr
Rare migrant and summer visitant south. One breeding record (1994).
*Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas)R
Breeds throughout
*Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina)Rr
Breeds very locally central and east-central. Rare migrant southeast and central. State designation: Special Concern.
*American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla)R
Breeds throughout, but rare southwest. Migrant throughout.
Kirtland's Warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii)A
Two spring records (1892, 1944). Federal designation: Endangered.
*Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea)R
Breeds southeast and central. State designation: Special Concern.
*Northern Parula (Setophaga americana)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Magnolia Warbler (Setophaga magnolia)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Bay-breasted Warbler (Setophaga castanea)R
Breeds locally northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Blackburnian Warbler (Setophaga fusca)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia)R
Breeds throughout.
*Chestnut-sided Warbler (Setophaga pensylvanica)R
Breeds north, central, and east-central. Migrant throughout.
Blackpoll Warbler (Setophaga striata)R
Migrant throughout.
*Black-throated Blue Warbler (Setophaga caerulescens)Rr
Breeds locally northeast. Rare mostly fall migrant east.
*Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum)R
Breeds north-central and locally northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Pine Warbler (Setophaga pinus)R
Breeds mostly north-central, northeast, and east-central. Migrant throughout but rare southwest.
*Yellow-rumped Warbler (Setophaga coronata)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Yellow-throated Warbler (Setophaga dominica)C
Forty records: 20 spring, 6 spring-summer, 2 spring-fall, 1 summer, 2 summer-fall , 8 fall, and 1 winter. Two breeding records (2001, 2013). Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor)C
Twenty-seven records: 15 spring, 10 summer, and 2 fall. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2009.
Black-throated Gray Warbler (Setophaga nigrescens)A
Seven records: 4 spring and 3 fall. Recorded in two (2005, 2010) of the last 10 years.
Townsend's Warbler (Setophaga townsendi)A
Five records: 3 spring and 2 fall. Recorded in one (2004) of the last 10 years.
Hermit Warbler (Setophaga occidentalis)A
Two spring records (1931, 1983).
*Black-throated Green Warbler (Setophaga virens)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout
*Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Wilson's Warbler (Cardellina pusilla)R
Rare summer resident northeast. Migrant throughout. Two breeding records (1980, 2010).
Painted Redstart (Myioborus pictus)As
One fall record (1992).
*Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens)Rr
Rare spring migrant and summer visitant, mostly west and south. Rarely breeds, most recently 2009.
 
Family Emberizidae: Towhees, Sparrows
Green-tailed Towhee (Pipilo chlorurus)A
Five records: 2 spring, 1 fall-spring, and 2 winter. Recorded in one (2006) of the last 10 years.
Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus)Rr
Rare migrant throughout. Rare summer and winter visitant.
*Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus)R
Breeds locally except northeast. Migrant throughout.
American Tree Sparrow (Spizella arborea)R
Migrant throughout. Winter visitant south and central.
*Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina)R
Breeds throughout.
*Clay-colored Sparrow (Spizella pallida)R
Breeds throughout.
Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri)As
Three records: 1 summer and 2 fall. Recorded in one (2005) of the last 10 years.
*Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla)R
Breeds south and central.
*Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus)R
Breeds throughout but rare northeast.
*Lark Sparrow (Chondestes grammacus)R
Breeds locally except northeast. State designation: Special Concern.
Black-throated Sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata)A
Seven records: 1 spring, 5 fall, and 1 fall-winter. Recorded in one (2007) of the last 10 years. Formerly Casual.
*Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys)C
Former summer resident southwest and west-central. Last breeding record 1964. Recorded in 7 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
*Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis)R
Breeds throughout.
*Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)R
Breeds throughout but absent northeast.
*Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii)A
Former summer resident northwest. Last breeding record 1937. State designation: Endangered. Last recorded in 2002.
*Henslow's Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii)Rr
Breeds very locally south and west. State designation: Endangered.
*Le Conte's Sparrow (Ammodramus leconteii)R
Breeds mostly north. Migrant throughout.
*Nelson's Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni)R
Breeds locally northwest and north-central. Migrant throughout. State designation: Special Concern.
Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca)R
Migrant throughout.
*Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia)R
Breeds throughout. Overwinters south.
*Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana)R
Breeds throughout.
*White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)R
Breeds mostly north. Migrant throughout, overwinters south.
Harris's Sparrow (Zonotrichia querula)R
Migrant throughout.
White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys)R
Migrant throughout.
Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla)C
Nine records: 5 spring, 1 fall, 1 fall-winter, and 2 winter-spring. Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2012. Formerly Accidental.
*Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant and winter visitant throughout.
 
Family Cardinalidae: Tanagers, Cardinals, Grosbeaks
*HSummer Tanager (Piranga rubra)Rr
Rare migrant throughout. Three breeding attempts, all mixed pairings with Scarlet Tanager (P. olivacea).
*Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea)R
Breeds throughout, but absent west-central and southwest. Migrant throughout.
Western Tanager (Piranga ludoviciana)Rr
Rare migrant throughout.
*Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)R
Permanent resident throughout.
*Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus)R
Breeds throughout.
Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus)C
Twenty-six records: 18 spring, 1 spring-summer, 1 summer, 1 summer-fall, 4 fall, and 1 winter. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
*Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea)Rr
Breeds locally mostly southwest.
Lazuli Bunting (Passerina amoena)C
Forty-nine records: 40 spring, 1 spring-summer, 6 summer, and 2 fall. Recorded in 7 of the last ten years, most recently 2013.
*Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea)R
Breeds throughout.
Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris)C
Twenty-four records: 16 spring, 1 spring-summer, 1 spring-fall, 4 summer, and 2 fall. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.
*Dickcissel (Spiza americana)R
Breeds mostly south, irruptive breeder north.
 
Family Icteridae: Blackbirds, Orioles
*Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus)R
*Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)R
Breeds throughout. Overwinters south.
*Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna)R
Breeds east and central.
*Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)R
Breeds throughout but rare east-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus)R
Breeds throughout but absent northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus)R
Rare summer resident northeast. Very few breeding records, last in 1986. Migrant throughout.
*Brewer's Blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus)R
Breeds throughout but rare far south. Migrant throughout.
*Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula)R
Breeds throughout. Overwinters south.
*Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus)Rr
Breeds locally southwest.
*Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater)R
Breeds throughout.
*Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius)R
Breeds south and west.
Bullock's Oriole (Icterus bullockii)A
Two records: 1 spring (2013) and 1 fall-winter (1968).
*Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula)R
Breeds throughout except far northeast.
Scott's Oriole (Icterus parisorum)A
Four records: 2 spring, 1 spring-summer, and 1 fall. Recorded in one (2011) of the last 10 years.
 
Family Fringillidae: Finches
Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla)A
Six records: 1 spring, 2 fall, 1 winter, and 2 winter-spring. Last recorded 2001.
Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Leucosticte tephrocotis)C
Seventeen records: 3 spring, 2 fall, 1 fall-winter, 8 winter, and 3 winter-spring. Recorded in 6 of the last 10 years, most recently 2011.
Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator)R
Irruptive winter visitant mostly north.
*House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)R
Introduced in eastern North America. Permanent resident throughout except far northeast.
*Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus)R
Breeds mostly north. Migrant and winter visitant throughout.
Cassin's Finch (Haemorhous cassinii)A
One fall record (1987).
*Red Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra)R
Rare breeder. Irruptive migrant mostly north-central and northeast.
*White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera)R
Rare breeder. Irruptive migrant mostly north-central and northeast.
Common Redpoll (Acanthis flammea)R
Irruptive winter visitant mostly north and central.
Hoary Redpoll (Acanthis hornemanni)R
Rare winter visitant mostly north and central.
*Pine Siskin (Spinus pinus)R
Breeds mostly north, irruptive breeder mostly east-central. Migrant and winter visitant throughout.
*American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis)R
Breeds throughout. Winter visitant mostly south and central.
*Evening Grosbeak (Coccothraustes vespertinus)R
Permanent resident north-central and northeast, occasional irruptive winter visitant mostly north and central.
 
Family Passeridae: Old World Sparrows
*House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)R
Introduced in North America. Permanent resident throughout.
Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus)C
Introduced in North America. Nine records: 3 spring, 1 spring-summer, 2 summer, 1 summer-fall, 1 fall, and 1 winter. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2013.

Introduction

      The nomenclature, sequence, and taxonomy of this Checklist are in accordance with the seventh edition of the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-list of North American Birds (1998) and its supplements.

      The Committee acknowledges the contributions of Karl J. Bardon, Anthony X. Hertzel, and Peder H. Svingen who compiled a comprehensive database of records for Regular, Casual, and Accidental species. Their compilation provided a basis for many of the species annotations.

      This Checklist includes 439 species of birds officially recorded in Minnesota through 31 December 2013, and the symbol annotating each species on the list represents its status in the state:

R = Regular(316 species)
C = Casual(39 species)
A = Accidental(81 species)
E = Extirpated(2 species)
X = Extinct(1 species)

Definition of Status Terms Used for Species on the Checklist

      Regular species are those for which there are Accepted records in ten or nine years out of the past ten years. Note that some Regular species are only marginally annual in occurrence and may average only one or two records per year or have a very limited range in the state.
      Casual species are those for which there are Accepted records in eight, seven, six, five, four, or three years out of the past ten years.
      Accidental species are those for which there are Accepted records in two, one, or no years out of the past ten years.
      Extirpated species are those that formerly occurred regularly in the state but disappeared and are not expected to recur. Extinct species are those that formerly occurred in the state but no longer occur anywhere in the world.

      Exceptions: By majority vote, the Committee may consider and designate the status of a species on an individual basis, if it is felt that the number of years in which it has been recorded does not accurately reflect that species’ current status. The Committee recognizes that certain species may be difficult to detect for a variety of reasons and that individual birds may return to the same location in one or more subsequent years. (For example, the White-winged Dove has been recorded in nine of the past ten years, normally a number reflecting Regular status, but a majority of the Committee feels that this species is more accurately classified as Casual.)

Other Definitions and Annotations

      To determine the status of a species, the Committee defines a record as one or more individuals occurring at a specific location and date. If the individual or group moves to a new location, it is considered the same record if it is known or judged to be the same individual(s). If documented over multiple days, the collective observations will be considered the same record as long as the individual or group has not left the state for an extended period and returned (e.g., as a migrant). Returning migrants, even if suspected or known to be the same individuals, will be considered as separate records.
      A record may be documented by an identifiable and preserved specimen, photograph, video or audio recording, a written report, or any combination of these. It may also be any accepted historical observation in the literature.
      Other guidelines or definitions for a record may have been used by earlier reviewers, compilers, or Committee members to determine the number of records and the number of years included in the species annotations. The totals published here reflect the best judgment of the current Committee.

      A record is considered Accepted if the Committee has voted on the documentation in accordance with Committee rules and agrees with the identification.

      The ten-year base period on which the status of each species on this Checklist is determined is from 2004 through 2013. (The intention is to update the Checklist at five-year intervals, so that the next scheduled ten-year base period will be from 2009 through 2018.)

      The subscript "s" (e.g., As) indicates a species for which there is no identifiable and preserved specimen, photograph, video or audio recording, or other physical evidence obtained in the state, but for which there is at least one sighting documented in writing that has been voted on and accepted unanimously by the Committee. Currently there are 5 such species: 4 Accidentals, and 1 Extirpated.

      The subscript "o" (e.g., Ao) indicates a species for which there is reasonable uncertainty as to its origin and wildness, or uncertainty as to its natural occurrence or arrival in the state. (This does not include those birds which are known or considered to be of captive origin, or those which are known or considered not to have arrived in the state under their own power; such species are excluded from the Checklist.) Currently there are 4 such Accidental species.

      The subscript "r" (e.g., Rr) indicates a species that is Regular but rare in Minnesota. Currently, there is no precise definition of a rare Regular, so for the purposes of this checklist it is defined as an annual species that is unpredictable and limited in occurrence or extremely local in distribution. It includes birds that move on and off the Casual species list as the checklist is updated. Note that this current list of 43 rare Regulars has been produced by members of the MOU's Electronic Communications Committee, and that the Minnesota Ornithologists' Union records Committee (MOURC) does not yet recognize this class of birds on its checklist.

      An asterisk (*) indicates a species for which there is at least one confirmed breeding record for the state. Currently there are 267 such species: 249 Regulars, 7 Casuals, 9 Accidentals, 1 Extirpated, and 1 Extinct.

      Breeding is defined as the laying of eggs in a context that indicates an effort to produce young. A breeding record is considered confirmed if any one of the following criteria is documented: nest with egg or eggshells; young in nest seen or heard; young unable to sustain flight seen away from nest; precocial young not yet full-sized. The following superscripts may be used to qualify confirmed breeding (e.g., *H):

Ione or both breeding individuals were injured.
Hone of the breeding individuals was, or may have been, a different species.

      Brief annotations are included for all species, though these are only intended to be basic guidelines as to status and expected occurrence. Ranges within the state are noted but are generalized (e.g., "northeast"). The most recent date of occurrence is given for Casual and Accidental species. Subscripts, superscripts, and asterisks may be applied to any species regardless of its status.

      Included with the annotations, the conservation status at the state level as defined and designated by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, is also noted:

  • A species is designated Endangered if it is threatened with extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range within Minnesota.
  • A species is designated Threatened if it is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range within Minnesota.
  • A species is designated Special Concern if, although not Endangered or Threatened, it is extremely uncommon in Minnesota, or has unique or highly specific habitat requirements and deserves careful monitoring of its status. Species on the periphery of their range that are not listed as threatened may be included in this category along with those species that were once Threatened or Endangered but now have increasing or protected, stable populations.

      Where applicable, federal conservation status is also indicated as defined and designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.