Minnesota Checklist

 
Order Anseriformes
Family Anatidae: Ducks, Geese, Swans
Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis)C
Nine records: 1 spring, 1 spring-summer, and 7 fall; 7 of these records involved birds of uncertain origin. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
Fulvous Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna bicolor)Ao
One spring (1929) and 1 fall (1950) record; both records involved birds of uncertain origin.
Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons)R
Migrant mostly south and west.
Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens)R
Migrant throughout, but rare north-central. Increasing.
Ross's Goose (Chen rossii)R
Migrant mostly south and west. Increasing.
Brant (Branta bernicla)C
Sixteen records: 6 spring, 1 summer, 8 fall, and 1 fall-winter. Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008. Formerly Accidental.
Cackling Goose (Branta hutchinsii)R
Migrant throughout.
*Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)R
Breeds throughout but uncommonly far northeast. Locally overwinters.
*Mute Swan (Cygnus olor)Rr
Introduced in North America. Rare at any season; some records likely involve birds of captive origin. One breeding record (1988).
*Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator)R
Reintroduced in Minnesota; summer resident; winters locally. Former summer resident (pre-1900). Increasing. State designation: Threatened.
*Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus)R
Migrant throughout but rare southwest. Two breeding records (1932, 1956) both involving an injured bird.
*Wood Duck (Aix sponsa)R
Breeds throughout.
*Gadwall (Anas strepera)R
Breeds mostly west and central. Migrant throughout.
Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope)C
Twenty-nine records: 21 spring, 4 summer, and 4 fall. Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008.
*American Wigeon (Anas americana)R
Breeds mostly north. Migrant throughout.
*American Black Duck (Anas rubripes)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout but rare southwest. Winter visitant mainly south.
*Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)R
Breeds throughout. Locally overwinters.
American Black Duck X Mallard (Anas rubripes X A. platyrhynchos)H
Hybrid Species.
Gadwall X Mallard (Anas strepera X A. platyrhynchos)H
Hybrid Species.
*Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors)R
Breeds throughout.
Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera)Rr
Rare summer visitant and migrant, mostly in spring. Formerly Casual.
Blue-winged Teal X Cinnamon Teal (Anas discors X A. cyanoptera)H
Hybrid Species.
*Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata)R
Breeds mostly south and west. Migrant throughout.
*Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)R
Breeds mostly south and west. Migrant throughout.
Garganey (Anas querquedula)A
Two spring records (1987, 1993).
*Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca)R
Rarely breeds, mostly northwest. Migrant throughout.
*Canvasback (Aythya valisineria)R
Breeds mostly west and central. Migrant throughout but rare northeast.
*Redhead (Aythya americana)R
Breeds mostly west and central. Migrant throughout.
*Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris)R
Breeds throughout except far south. Migrant throughout.
Greater Scaup (Aythya marila)R
Migrant throughout.
*Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis)R
Breeds northwest. Migrant throughout.
King Eider (Somateria spectabilis)C
Seventeen records: 12 fall, 3 winter, and 2 spring; all but 5 from Lake Superior. Three additional records of Somateria sp. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
Common Eider (Somateria mollissima)A
Four fall records. Last recorded 1966.
Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus)Rr
Rare migrant and winter visitant primarily on Lake Superior.
Surf Scoter (Melanitta perspicillata)R
Migrant primarily on Lake Superior, rare elsewhere.
White-winged Scoter (Melanitta fusca)R
Migrant primarily on Lake Superior, rare elsewhere.
Black Scoter (Melanitta americana)R
Migrant primarily on Lake Superior, rare elsewhere.
Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis)R
Migrant and winter visitant throughout, primarily on Lake Superior.
*Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola)R
Rarely breeds, mostly northwest. Migrant throughout.
*Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula)R
Breeds north. Migrant throughout, and locally overwinters.
Barrow's Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica)C
Seventy-four records, from fall through spring. Recorded in 7 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008.
Smew (Mergellus albellus)Ao
One spring record (1999). Two Not Accepted records involved birds of presumed captive origin.
*Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus)R
Breeds throughout except the far southwest. Migrant throughout.
Common Goldeneye X Hooded Merganser (Bucephala clangula X Lophodytes cucullatus)H
Hybrid Species.
*Common Merganser (Mergus merganser)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout, and locally overwinters.
*Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator)R
Breeds northeast. Migrant throughout, and locally overwinters.
*Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis)R
Breeds mostly west and central. Migrant throughout but rare north-central and northeast.
 
Order Galliformes
Family Odontophoridae: New World Quail
*Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus)E
Former permanent resident. All recent observations are likely of released or escaped birds.
 
Family Phasianidae: Pheasants, Grouse, Turkeys
*Gray Partridge (Perdix perdix)R
Introduced in North America. Permanent resident south and west.
*Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)R
Introduced in North America. Permanent resident south and central.
*Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus)R
Permanent resident north and east.
*Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis)R
Permanent resident far north.
Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus)A
Winter invasion 1933-1934 (200+ individuals), plus single records 1914, 1964.
Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta)A
One spring record (1996).
*Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus)R
Permanent resident north. Declining.
*Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido)R
Permanent resident west-central. Re-introductions ongoing west. State designation: Special Concern.
*Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)R
Introduced in Minnesota. Permanent resident south; range expanding northward.
 
Order Gaviiformes
Family Gaviidae: Loons
Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata)Rr
Rare migrant, primarily on Lake Superior in spring.
Pacific Loon (Gavia pacifica)Rr
Rare migrant, primarily on Lake Superior in fall.
*Common Loon (Gavia immer)R
Breeds north and central, migrant throughout.
Yellow-billed Loon (Gavia adamsii)A
Six records: 5 fall and 1 winter. Recorded in 2 of the last 10 years, most recently 2005.
 
Order Podicipediformes
Family Podicipedidae: Grebes
*Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps)R
Breeds throughout.
*Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus)R
Formerly nested northwest. Declining. Migrant throughout. State designation: Threatened.
*Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps grisegena)R
Breeds north and central. Migrant throughout.
*Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis)R
Breeds west. Migrant throughout.
*Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis)R
Breeds west. Migrant throughout.
*Clark's Grebe (Aechmophorus clarkii)Rr
Rare migrant, mostly west. A few breeding records, all possibly involving hybrid pairings with Western Grebe (A. occidentalis).
Western Grebe X Clark's Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis X A. clarkii)H
Hybrid Species.
 
Order Ciconiiformes
Family Ciconiidae: Storks
Wood Stork (Mycteria americana)A
One summer record (2004). Federal designation: Endangered.
 
Order Suliformes
Family Fregatidae: Frigatebirds
Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens)A
One fall record (2007). Three fall records of Fregata sp.
 
Family Phalacrocoracidae: Cormorants
Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)C
Four records: 1 spring, 1 summer-fall, 2 fall. Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007. Formerly Accidental.
*Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus)R
Breeds throughout.
 
Order Pelecaniformes
Family Pelecanidae: Pelicans
*American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos)R
Breeds locally mostly west. Migrant throughout. State designation: Special Concern.
Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis)A
One summer record (2005).
 
Family Ardeidae: Herons, Egrets, Bitterns
*American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus)R
Breeds mostly north and central. Migrant throughout. Declining.
*Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis)R
Breeds throughout except northeast and portions of southeast.
*Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)R
Breeds throughout except southwest. Migrant throughout.
*Great Egret (Ardea alba)R
Breeds mostly south and west.
*Snowy Egret (Egretta thula)Rr
Rare migrant mostly south and west. Three breeding records.
*Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea)Rr
Rare migrant mostly south. No breeding records since 1981.
Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor)C
Fifteen records: 8 spring, 1 spring-summer, 5 summer, and 1 summer-fall. Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
*Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis)Rr
Rare migrant mostly south and west. Rarely breeds.
*Green Heron (Butorides virescens)R
Breeds south and central.
*Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)R
Breeds locally south and west.
*Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (Nyctanassa violacea)Rr
Rare migrant south and summer resident mostly southeast. Last breeding record 1984. Declining.
 
Family Threskiornithidae: Ibises
White Ibis (Eudocimus albus)A
One spring record (1995).
Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus)A
Three spring records. Recorded in 2 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
*White-faced Ibis (Plegadis chihi)Rr
Rare migrant mostly west and south; increasing. Two old breeding records (1894, 1895). Formerly Casual.
Glossy Ibis X White-faced Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus X P. chihi)H
Hybrid Species.
 
Order Accipitriformes
Family Cathartidae: New World Vultures
Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus)C
Four records: 3 spring, 1 fall. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007. Formerly Accidental.
*Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)R
Breeds north and east. Migrant throughout.
 
Family Pandionidae: Osprey
*Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)R
Breeds north and east, reintroduced in Twin Cities. Migrant throughout.
 
Family Accipitridae: Hawks, Eagles, Kites
*Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus)C
Former summer resident. Eighteen records since 1900: 7 spring, 3 summer, 6 fall, 1 spring-fall, and 1 undated. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008. Formerly Accidental.
White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus)A
Two spring records (2000, 2008).
Mississippi Kite (Ictinia mississippiensis)C
Twenty-nine records: 11 spring, 2 summer, and 16 fall. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008.
*Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)R
Breeds mostly north and east. Migrant and winter visitant throughout. State designation: Special Concern.
*Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus)R
Breeds mostly throughout except southeast. Migrant throughout.
*Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus)R
Breeds north. Migrant and winter visitant throughout.
*Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)R
Breeds throughout except far north-central and northeast.
*Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Irruptive migrant and winter visitant throughout. Declining.
*Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus)R
Breeds mostly south and east. State designation: Special Concern.
*Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus)R
Breeds north and east. Migrant throughout.
*Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni)R
Breeds south and west. Migrant mostly south and west.
*Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)R
Breeds throughout. Winter visitant mostly south and central.
Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis)C
Rare migrant mostly west. Declining. Recorded in 9 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008. Formerly Regular.
Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus)R
Migrant and winter visitant throughout.
Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)Rr
Rare migrant and winter visitant throughout.
 
Order Gruiformes
Family Rallidae: Rails, Gallinules, Coots
*Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis)R
Breeds northwest and north-central. Rare migrant throughout. State designation: Special Concern.
Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis)A
Seven records: 4 spring, 1 summer, and 2 fall. Last recorded 1979.
*King Rail (Rallus elegans)A
Former summer resident south. Last recorded 1992. State designation: Endangered.
*Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola)R
Breeds throughout.
*Sora (Porzana carolina)R
Breeds throughout.
Purple Gallinule (Porphyrio martinicus)A
Three records: 1 summer and 2 fall. Last recorded 1970.
*Common Gallinule (Gallinula galeata)Rr
Breeds south. Declining. State designation: Special Concern.
*American Coot (Fulica americana)R
Breeds throughout except far northeast.
 
Family Gruidae: Cranes
*Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis)R
Breeds north and east. Migrant throughout.
*Whooping Crane (Grus americana)A
Former summer resident west. Eight records since 1900: 3 spring, 4 fall, and 1 undated. One record (2007) in the last 10 years. Federal designation: Endangered.
 
Order Charadriiformes
Family Recurvirostridae: Avocets, Stilts
Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus)C
Fifteen records: 12 spring and 3 summer. Recorded in 7 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008. Formerly Accidental.
*American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana)R
Rare breeder west. Migrant mostly west and south.
 
Family Charadriidae: Plovers, Lapwings
Black-bellied Plover (Pluvialis squatarola)R
Migrant throughout.
American Golden-Plover (Pluvialis dominica)R
Migrant throughout.
*Snowy Plover (Charadrius nivosus)C
Ten records: 4 spring, 5 summer, and 1 fall. One nesting record (2006). Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007. Formerly Accidental.
Wilson's Plover (Charadrius wilsonia)A
Two records: one spring (1981) and one summer (1982).
Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus)R
Migrant throughout.
*Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus)Rr
Breeds locally north-central. Rare migrant throughout. State designation: Endangered. Federal designations: Great Lakes population, Endangered; Northern Great Plains population, Threatened.
*Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus)R
Breeds throughout.
 
Family Scolopacidae: Sandpipers
*Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius)R
Breeds throughout.
*Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa solitaria)R
Migrant throughout. Two breeding records (1973, 1982).
Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca)R
Migrant throughout.
*Willet (Tringa semipalmata)R
Former summer resident south and west. Migrant throughout.
Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes)R
Migrant throughout.
*Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda)R
Breeds throughout except far northeast and north-central. Declining.
Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis)Es
Former spring migrant west. Last recorded 1886. Federal designation: Endangered.
Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus)Rr
Rare migrant on Lake Superior. Accidental elsewhere.
*Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus)C
Former summer resident. Twenty-five records since 1900: 18 spring, 3 summer, and 4 fall. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008. Formerly Accidental.
Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica)R
Migrant mostly west, primarily in spring.
*Marbled Godwit (Limosa fedoa)R
Breeds northwest and west-central. Migrant mostly west. State designation: Special Concern.
Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres)R
Migrant throughout.
Red Knot (Calidris canutus)Rr
Rare migrant throughout. Declining.
Ruff (Calidris pugnax)C
Forty-three records: 24 spring, 9 summer, and 10 fall. Recorded in 6 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
Stilt Sandpiper (Calidris himantopus)R
Migrant throughout.
Curlew Sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea)A
Three spring records. Recorded in 2 of the last 10 years, most recently 2006.
Sanderling (Calidris alba)R
Migrant throughout.
Dunlin (Calidris alpina)R
Migrant throughout.
Purple Sandpiper (Calidris maritima)A
Five records: 4 fall and 1 winter. One record (2006) in the last 10 years.
Baird's Sandpiper (Calidris bairdii)R
Migrant throughout.
Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla)R
Migrant throughout.
White-rumped Sandpiper (Calidris fuscicollis)R
Migrant throughout.
Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Calidris subruficollis)R
Rare fall migrant throughout.
Pectoral Sandpiper (Calidris melanotos)R
Migrant throughout.
Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla)R
Migrant throughout.
Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri)C
Six documented records: 2 spring, 1 summer, and 3 fall. Prior to 1990, assumed to be Regular with numerous undocumented reports. Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007. Formerly Accidental.
Short-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus)R
Migrant throughout.
Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus scolopaceus)R
Migrant throughout, mostly south and west.
*Wilson's Snipe (Gallinago delicata)R
Breeds throughout except far south. Migrant throughout.
*American Woodcock (Scolopax minor)R
Breeds throughout except far south and west. Migrant throughout.
*Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor)R
Breeds locally west and central. Migrant throughout. State designation: Threatened.
Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus)R
Migrant throughout, mostly south and west.
Red Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius)C
Sixteen records: 3 spring and 13 fall. Recorded in 6 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008.
 
Family Stercorariidae: Jaegers
Pomarine Jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus)C
Seventeen records: 1 spring and 16 fall. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2006.
Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus)Rr
Rare migrant mostly on Lake Superior, primarily in fall.
Long-tailed Jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus)A
Nine records: 1 spring, 1 summer, and 7 fall. Recorded in 2 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
 
Family Alcidae: Auks, Murres
Dovekie (Alle alle)A
Two fall records (1931, 1962).
Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle)A
One fall record (2009).
Long-billed Murrelet (Brachyramphus perdix)A
One fall record (2008).
Ancient Murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus)A
Seven records: 6 fall and 1 winter. One record (1999) in the last 10 years.
 
Family Laridae: Gulls, Terns, Skimmers
Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)C
Thirty-four records: 3 spring, 1 summer, 22 fall, and 8 winter. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea)A
Eleven records: 1 spring and 10 winter. One record (2008) in the last 10 years.
Sabine's Gull (Xema sabini)C
Fifty-four records: 1 spring, 1 summer, and 52 fall. Recorded in 8 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008.
Bonaparte's Gull (Chroicocephalus philadelphia)R
Migrant throughout.
Black-headed Gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)C
Fourteen records, all from Jackson County: 3 spring, 1 spring-summer, 1 summer-fall, and 9 fall. Recorded in 8 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
*Little Gull (Hydrocoloeus minutus)Rr
Rare migrant, mostly at Duluth in spring. One breeding record (1986).
Ross's Gull (Rhodostethia rosea)A
Three records: 2 spring and 1 winter. One record (2007) in the last 10 years.
Laughing Gull (Leucophaeus atricilla)A
Twelve records: 5 spring, 2 summer, and 5 fall. Last recorded 1997. Formerly Casual.
*Franklin's Gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan)R
Breeds locally west. Migrant throughout. State designation: Special Concern.
Mew Gull (Larus canus)A
Three records: 2 fall and 1 winter. Last recorded 1998.
*Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis)R
Breeds locally. Migrant throughout.
California Gull (Larus californicus)C
Thirty-five records: 17 spring, 4 summer, 13 fall, and 1 fall-winter. Recorded in 8 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
*Herring Gull (Larus argentatus)R
Breeds north-central and northeast. Migrant throughout.
Thayer's Gull (Larus thayeri)R
Rare migrant and winter visitant, primarily on Lake Superior and in Twin Cities.
Iceland Gull (Larus glaucoides)Rr
Rare migrant and winter visitant on Lake Superior and in Twin Cities.
Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus)Rr
Rare migrant, primarily on Lake Superior and in Twin Cities.
Slaty-backed Gull (Larus schistisagus)A
Four records: 1 summer-fall, 2 winter, and 1 winter-spring. Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008.
Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens)A
Three records: 2 fall-winter and 1 winter. Last recorded 1997.
Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus)R
Rare migrant and winter visitant, primarily on Lake Superior and in Twin Cities.
Herring Gull X Glaucous Gull (Larus argentatus X L. hyperboreus)H
Hybrid Species.
Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus)Rr
Rare migrant and winter visitant, mostly on Lake Superior.
Least Tern (Sternula antillarum)C
Twenty-one records: 4 spring, 11 summer, and 6 fall. Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2006. Federal status: Endangered.
*Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia)R
Migrant throughout. Four breeding records.
*Black Tern (Chlidonias niger)R
Breeds throughout except far northeast. Migrant throughout.
*Common Tern (Sterna hirundo)R
Breeds locally north. Migrant throughout. Declining. State designation: Threatened.
Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea)C
Twenty-three records, mostly from Duluth: 8 spring, 3 spring-summer, 6 summer, and 6 fall. Recorded in 7 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
*Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri)R
Breeds mostly west. Migrant throughout. State designation: Special Concern.
Sandwich Tern (Thalasseus sandvicensis)A
One summer record (1986).
Elegant Tern (Thalasseus elegans)A
One summer record (2007).
 
Order Columbiformes
Family Columbidae: Pigeons, Doves
*Rock Pigeon (Columba livia)R
Introduced in North America. Permanent resident throughout.
Band-tailed Pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata)A
Nine records: 3 summer, 5 fall, and 1 fall-spring. Recorded in 2 of the last 10 years, most recently 2003. Formerly Casual.
*Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)R
Introduced in North America. An increasing permanent resident, mainly south and west. First northeast records in 2008.
White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica)C
Fifteen records, 6 spring, 5 summer, and 4 fall. Recorded in 6 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008. Formerly Accidental.
*Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura)R
Breeds throughout, winter visitant mostly south.
*Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius)X
Extinct. Former migrant and summer resident; last specimen record 1895.
Inca Dove (Columbina inca)A
One fall record (2007).
Common Ground-Dove (Columbina passerina)A
Three fall records. Recorded in 2 of the last 10 years, most recently 2005.
 
Order Cuculiformes
Family Cuculidae: Cuckoos
*Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus)R
Breeds throughout, mostly south and west, but absent in the far north-central and northeast.
*Black-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus erythropthalmus)R
Breeds throughout.
Groove-billed Ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris)A
Eight records: 1 summer and 7 fall. Two additional records of Crotophaga sp. Last recorded 1995.
 
Order Strigiformes
Family Tytonidae: Barn-Owls
*Barn Owl (Tyto alba)A
Formerly nested south and east-central. One record (2006) in the last 10 years.
 
Family Strigidae: Owls
*Eastern Screech-Owl (Megascops asio)R
Permanent resident throughout, but rare northwest and absent north-central and northeast.
*Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus)R
Permanent resident throughout.
Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus)R
Irruptive winter visitant mostly north.
*Northern Hawk Owl (Surnia ulula)R
Irruptive winter visitant mostly north; rarely breeds.
*Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia)C
Formerly summer resident southwest and west-central. Recorded in 7 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008. State designation: Endangered.
*Barred Owl (Strix varia)R
Permanent resident throughout, but absent southwest.
*Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa)R
Permanent resident north-central and northeast; irruptive in winter mostly north.
*Long-eared Owl (Asio otus)R
Breeds throughout but absent southwest; winter visitant throughout but rare north.
*Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus)R
Breeds northwest, rare migrant throughout. State designation: Special Concern.
*Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus)Rr
Permanent resident northeast; irruptive in winter mostly north. Declining.
*Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus)R
Permanent resident north-central and northeast, rare breeder southeast, rare migrant and winter visitant throughout.
 
Order Caprimulgiformes
Family Caprimulgidae: Nightjars
*Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor)R
Breeds throughout. Declining.
Common Poorwill (Phalaenoptilus nuttallii)A
One spring record (1963).
Chuck-will's-widow (Antrostomus carolinensis)A
Five summer records: four from the same locality in successive years (1981-1984). Last recorded 1984.
*Eastern Whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferus)R
 
Order Apodiformes
Family Apodidae: Swifts
*Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica)R
Breeds throughout.
White-throated Swift (Aeronautes saxatalis)A
One spring record (2000).
 
Family Trochilidae: Hummingbirds
Green Violetear (Colibri thalassinus)A
One summer record, one summer-fall record (2004, 2005).
Magnificent Hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens)A
Three summer records. Last recorded 1994.
*Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris)R
Breeds throughout.
Anna's Hummingbird (Calypte anna)A
Four records: 2 fall, 1 fall-winter, and 1 winter. Recorded in 2 of the last 10 years, most recently 2006.
Costa's Hummingbird (Calypte costae)A
One fall record (2003).
Rufous Hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus)A
Twelve records: 4 summer, 1 summer-fall, and 7 fall. Three additional records of Selasphorus sp. Last recorded 1999.
Calliope Hummingbird (Selasphorus calliope)A
One fall-winter record (1994).
 
Order Coraciiformes
Family Alcedinidae: Kingfishers
*Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon)R
Breeds throughout.
 
Order Piciformes
Family Picidae: Woodpeckers
Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis)A
Three records: 2 spring and 1 winter-spring. Last recorded 1994.
*Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus)R
Breeds throughout but absent northeast. Declining.
Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus)A
One fall record (2009).
*Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus)R
Breeds south and central. Range expanding northward.
Williamson's Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus thyroideus)A
Three records: 2 spring and 1 fall. Last recorded 1999.
*Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius)R
Breeds throughout but absent far southwest.
*Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens)R
Permanent resident throughout.
*Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus)R
Permanent resident throughout.
*American Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides dorsalis)Rr
Rare permanent resident north-central and northeast.
*Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus)R
Permanent resident north-central and northeast; irruptive winter visitant.
*Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus)R
Breeds throughout.
*Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus)R
Permanent resident throughout but absent southwest.
 
Order Falconiformes
Family Falconidae: Falcons, Caracaras
Crested Caracara (Caracara cheriway)Aos
One summer record (1994).
*American Kestrel (Falco sparverius)R
Breeds throughout. Winter visitant mostly south.
*Merlin (Falco columbarius)R
Breeds mostly north. Migrant and winter visitant throughout.
Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus)C
Rare migrant and winter visitant, mostly north. Recorded in 8 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008.
*Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)R
Reintroduced. Breeds east. Migrant throughout. State designation: Threatened.
Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus)Rr
Rare migrant mostly west.
 
Order Passeriformes
Family Tyrannidae: Flycatchers
*Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi)R
Breeds northeast and north-central. Migrant throughout.
*Western Wood-Pewee (Contopus sordidulus)A
Eight records: 3 summer and 3 fall, plus 2 breeding records involving unidentified wood-pewee (1977, 2007). One record (2007) in the last 10 years.
*Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens)R
Breeds throughout.
*Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris)R
Breeds northeast and north-central. Migrant throughout.
*Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens)R
Breeds southeast. State designation: Special Concern.
*Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum)R
Breeds north and central. Migrant throughout.
*Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii)R
Breeds south and west.
*Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus)R
Breeds throughout.
*Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe)R
Breeds throughout.
*Say's Phoebe (Sayornis saya)C
Thirty records: 15 spring, 3 spring-summer, 1 summer, and 11 fall. Recorded in 7 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008.
Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus)A
Three fall records. Last recorded 1994.
Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens)A
Two fall records (1990, 2000).
*Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus)R
Breeds throughout.
Tropical/Couch's Kingbird (Tyrannus sp.)A
One fall record (2011).
Cassin's Kingbird (Tyrannus vociferans)A
One sighting. This sighting has yet to be been considered by MOURC.
*Western Kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis)R
Breeds west and east-central. Rare migrant elsewhere.
*Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus)R
Breeds throughout.
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus)C
Seventy-six records: 30 spring, 27 summer, 18 fall, and 1 undated. One breeding attempt (1997), a mixed-pairing with Western Kingbird (T. verticalis). Recorded in 8 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
Fork-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus savana)A
Two records: 1 spring (1992) and 1 fall (1991).
 
Family Laniidae: Shrikes
*Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus)R
Breeds locally west and south. Declining. State designation: Threatened.
Northern Shrike (Lanius excubitor)R
Winter visitant throughout.
 
Family Vireonidae: Vireos
*White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus)Rr
Rare migrant, mostly south. Two breeding records (1991, 2001). Formerly Casual.
*Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii)Rr
Breeds locally southeast and south-central.
*Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons)R
Breeds throughout except southwest and northeast; migrant throughout.
*Blue-headed Vireo (Vireo solitarius)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
*Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus)R
Breeds throughout.
*Philadelphia Vireo (Vireo philadelphicus)R
Rare breeder northeast, migrant throughout.
*Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus)R
Breeds throughout.
 
Family Corvidae: Crows, Jays, Magpies
*Gray Jay (Perisoreus canadensis)R
Permanent resident north-central and northeast.
*Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata)R
Permanent resident throughout.
Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana)A
Nineteen records: 13 fall, 5 winter and 1 fall-spring. One record (2004) in the last 10 years.
*Black-billed Magpie (Pica hudsonia)R
Permanent resident northwest, local north-central and northeast.
*American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)R
Permanent resident throughout.
*Common Raven (Corvus corax)R
Permanent resident mostly north-central and northeast.
 
Family Alaudidae: Larks
*Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris)R
Breeds throughout, overwinters south and west. Declining.
 
Family Hirundinidae: Swallows
*Purple Martin (Progne subis)R
Breeds throughout.
*Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)R
Breeds throughout.
Violet-green Swallow (Tachycineta thalassina)As
Two records: 1 summer (1990) and 1 fall (1942).
*Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis)R
Breeds throughout.
*Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia)R
Breeds throughout.
*Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)R
Breeds throughout.
*Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)R
Breeds throughout.
 
Family Paridae: Chickadees, Titmice
*Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus)R
Permanent resident throughout.
*Boreal Chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus)R
Permanent resident north-central and northeast. Declining.
*Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor)Rr
Permanent resident southeast.
 
Family Sittidae: Nuthatches
*Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis)R
Permanent resident north-central, northeast, and east-central, migrant and winter visitant throughout.
*White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis)R
Permanent resident throughout.
Pygmy Nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea)Ao
One fall record (1996).
 
Family Certhiidae: Creepers
*Brown Creeper (Certhia americana)R
Breeds north and east, migrant and winter visitant throughout.
 
Family Troglodytidae: Wrens
*Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus)C
Twenty-six records: 12 spring, 2 spring-summer, 1 spring-fall, 2 summer, 9 fall. One nesting record (2004). Recorded in 7 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008.
*House Wren (Troglodytes aedon)R
Breeds throughout.
*Winter Wren (Troglodytes hiemalis)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
*Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis)R
Breeds throughout.
*Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris)R
Breeds throughout except the northeast.
*Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus)Rr
Rare in all seasons, mostly southeast.
*Bewick's Wren (Thryomanes bewickii)A
Fifty-three records since 1900: 26 spring, 6 spring-summer, 12 summer, 7 fall, and 2 undated. Last breeding record 1959. Last recorded 1998.
 
Family Polioptilidae: Gnatcatchers
*Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea)R
Breeds south and central. Increasing.
 
Family Cinclidae: Dippers
American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus)A
Three records: 2 summer and 1 winter-spring. Last recorded 1993.
 
Family Regulidae: Kinglets
*Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa)R
Breeds northeast and north-central, migrant throughout.
*Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula)R
Breeds northeast and north-central, migrant throughout.
 
Family Muscicapidae: Old World Flycatchers
Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe)A
One spring and two fall records. One record (2005) in the last 10 years.
 
Family Turdidae: Thrushes
*Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis)R
Breeds throughout.
*Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides)Rr
Rare migrant throughout but mostly west. One breeding record (1991); five mixed-pair breeding records with Eastern Bluebird (S. sialis).
Townsend's Solitaire (Myadestes townsendi)Rr
Rare migrant and winter visitant throughout.
*Veery (Catharus fuscescens)R
Breeds east and north, migrant throughout.
Gray-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus)R
Migrant throughout.
*Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
*Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
*Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina)R
Breeds mostly east and central.
Fieldfare (Turdus pilaris)A
One fall record (1991).
*American Robin (Turdus migratorius)R
Breeds throughout, winter visitant throughout.
Varied Thrush (Ixoreus naevius)Rr
Rare migrant and winter visitant throughout.
 
Family Mimidae: Mockingbirds, Thrashers
*Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis)R
Breeds throughout.
Curve-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre)A
Four records: 1 spring, 1 fall, 1 fall-winter, and 1 fall-spring. Recorded in 2 of the last 10 years, most recently 2006.
*Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum)R
Breeds throughout.
Sage Thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus)C
Eleven records: 4 spring, 3 summer, 3 fall, and 1 winter-spring. Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2004.
*Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)Rr
Rare throughout in all seasons. Five breeding records.
 
Family Sturnidae: Starlings
*European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)R
Introduced in North America. Permanent resident throughout.
 
Family Motacillidae: Pipits
American Pipit (Anthus rubescens)R
Primarily a fall migrant throughout.
*Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spragueii)C
Former summer resident northwest. Last breeding record 1988. Recorded in 4 of the last 10 years, most recently 2006. Declining. State designation: Endangered.
 
Family Bombycillidae: Waxwings
Bohemian Waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus)R
Irruptive winter visitant mostly north and central.
*Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum)R
Breeds throughout, winter visitant mostly south and central.
 
Family Calcariidae: Snow Buntings and Longspurs
Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus)R
Migrant throughout, winter visitant south and west.
*Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus)Rr
Breeds locally northwest. State designation: Endangered.
Smith's Longspur (Calcarius pictus)Rr
Rare migrant west and along the shore of Lake Superior.
*McCown's Longspur (Rhynchophanes mccownii)A
Three records since 1900: 1 spring, 1 summer, and 1 fall. Formerly nested west (1890-1899). One record (2000) in the last 10 years.
Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis)R
Migrant and winter visitant throughout.
 
Family Parulidae: Warblers
*Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla)R
Breeds throughout, but mostly absent far west; migrant throughout.
Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitheros vermivorum)C
Sixty records: 54 spring, 2 summer, and 4 fall. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
*Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla)R
Breeds locally southeast, east-central, and south-central. State designation: Special Concern.
*Northern Waterthrush (Parkesia noveboracensis)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
*Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera)R
Breeds mostly north and east-central, migrant throughout.
*Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera)R
Breeds southeast and east-central.
Golden-winged Warbler X Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera X V. cyanoptera)H
Hybrid Species.
*Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia)R
Breeds north-central, northeast, and east-central; migrant throughout.
*Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea)R
Breeds mostly southeast and east-central.
*Tennessee Warbler (Oreothlypis peregrina)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
Orange-crowned Warbler (Oreothlypis celata)R
Migrant throughout.
*Nashville Warbler (Oreothlypis ruficapilla)R
Breeds mostly north and east-central, migrant throughout.
*Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis)R
Breeds north-central and northeast.
MacGillivray's Warbler (Geothlypis tolmiei)A
One spring record (1958).
*Mourning Warbler (Geothlypis philadelphia)R
Breeds north and east-central, migrant throughout.
*Kentucky Warbler (Geothlypis formosa)Rr
Rare migrant and summer visitant south. One breeding record (1994).
*Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas)R
Breeds throughout.
*Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina)Rr
Breeds very locally central and east-central, rare migrant southeast. State designation: Special Concern.
*American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla)R
Breeds throughout, but rare southwest; migrant throughout.
Kirtland's Warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii)A
Two spring records (1892, 1944). Federal designation: Endangered.
*Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
*Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea)R
Breeds southeast and central. State designation: Special Concern.
*Northern Parula (Setophaga americana)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
*Magnolia Warbler (Setophaga magnolia)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
*Bay-breasted Warbler (Setophaga castanea)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
*Blackburnian Warbler (Setophaga fusca)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
*Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia)R
Breeds throughout.
*Chestnut-sided Warbler (Setophaga pensylvanica)R
Breeds north, central, and east-central; migrant throughout.
Blackpoll Warbler (Setophaga striata)R
Migrant throughout.
*Black-throated Blue Warbler (Setophaga caerulescens)Rr
Breeds northeast, rare mostly fall migrant east.
*Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum)R
Breeds north-central and locally northeast, migrant throughout.
*Pine Warbler (Setophaga pinus)R
Breeds mostly north-central and east-central, migrant throughout but rare southwest.
*Yellow-rumped Warbler (Setophaga coronata)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
*Yellow-throated Warbler (Setophaga dominica)C
Thirty-three records: 16 spring, 5 spring-summer, 2 spring-fall, 1 summer, 2 summer-fall, 6 fall, and 1 winter. One breeding record (2001). Recorded in 6 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008.
Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor)C
Twenty-one records: 11 spring, 8 summer, and 2 fall. Recorded in 8 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
Black-throated Gray Warbler (Setophaga nigrescens)A
Six records: 3 spring and 3 fall. Recorded in 2 of the last 10 years, most recently 2005.
Townsend's Warbler (Setophaga townsendi)A
Five records: 3 spring and 2 fall. One record (2004) in the last 10 years.
Hermit Warbler (Setophaga occidentalis)A
Two spring records (1931, 1983).
*Black-throated Green Warbler (Setophaga virens)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
*Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
*Wilson's Warbler (Cardellina pusilla)R
Rare summer resident northeast, migrant throughout. One breeding record (1980).
Painted Redstart (Myioborus pictus)As
One fall record (1992).
*Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens)Rr
Rare spring migrant and summer visitant, mostly west and south. Last breeding record 1976.
 
Family Emberizidae: Towhees, Sparrows
Green-tailed Towhee (Pipilo chlorurus)A
Five records: 2 spring, 1 fall-spring, and 2 winter. One record (2006-2007) in the last 10 years.
Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus)Rr
Rare migrant primarily southwest and west-central.
*Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus)R
Breeds locally except northeast; migrant throughout.
Spotted Towhee X Eastern Towhee (Pipilo maculatus X P. erythrophthalmus)H
Hybrid Species.
American Tree Sparrow (Spizella arborea)R
Migrant throughout, winter visitant south and central.
*Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina)R
Breeds throughout.
*Clay-colored Sparrow (Spizella pallida)R
Breeds throughout.
Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri)As
Three records: 1 summer and 2 fall. One record (2005) in last 10 years.
*Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla)R
Breeds south and central. Declining.
*Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus)R
Breeds throughout but absent northeast.
*Lark Sparrow (Chondestes grammacus)R
Breeds locally except northeast. Declining.
Black-throated Sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata)C
Seven records: 1 spring, 5 fall, and 1 fall-winter. Recorded in 3 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
*Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys)C
Former summer resident southwest and west-central. Last breeding record 1964. Recorded in 7 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
*Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis)R
Breeds throughout.
*Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)R
Breeds throughout but absent northeast. Declining.
*Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii)A
Former summer resident northwest. State designation: Endangered. One record (2002) in the last 10 years.
*Henslow's Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii)Rr
Breeds very locally west-central, central, east-central, and southeast. State designation: Endangered.
*Le Conte's Sparrow (Ammodramus leconteii)R
Breeds mostly north, migrant throughout.
*Nelson's Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni)R
Breeds northwest and north-central. State designation: Special Concern.
Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca)R
Migrant throughout.
*Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia)R
Breeds throughout, overwinters south.
*Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant throughout.
*Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana)R
Breeds throughout.
*White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)R
Breeds mostly north, migrant throughout.
Harris's Sparrow (Zonotrichia querula)R
Migrant throughout.
White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys)R
Migrant throughout.
Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla)A
Six records: 2 spring, 1 fall, 1 fall-winter, and 2 winter-spring. Recorded in 2 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008.
*Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis)R
Breeds north-central and northeast, migrant and winter visitant throughout.
 
Family Cardinalidae: Tanagers, Cardinals, Grosbeaks
*Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra)Rr
Rare migrant throughout. Three breeding attempts, all mixed-pairings with Scarlet Tanager (P. olivacea).
*Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea)R
Breeds throughout, but absent west-central and southwest; migrant throughout.
Western Tanager (Piranga ludoviciana)Rr
Rare migrant throughout.
*Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)R
Permanent resident south, central, and northeast. Range expanding westward and northward.
*Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus)R
Breeds throughout.
Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus)C
Twenty-four records: 17 spring, 1 spring-summer, 1 summer, 1 summer-fall, and 4 fall. Recorded in 6 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
*Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea)Rr
Breeds southwest.
Lazuli Bunting (Passerina amoena)C
Thirty-five records: 29 spring, 1 spring-summer, 3 summer, and 2 fall. Recorded in 9 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008.
*Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea)R
Breeds throughout.
Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris)C
Twenty-one records: 13 spring, 1 spring-summer, 1 spring-fall, 4 summer, and 2 fall. Recorded in 8 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007.
*Dickcissel (Spiza americana)R
Irruptive breeder mostly south and west.
 
Family Icteridae: Blackbirds, Orioles
*Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus)R
*Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)R
Breeds throughout.
*Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna)R
Breeds east and central.
*Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)R
Breeds throughout but absent far northeast, migrant throughout.
*Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus)R
Breeds throughout but absent northeast, migrant throughout.
*Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus)R
Rare summer resident northeast; very few breeding records, last in 1986. Migrant throughout.
*Brewer's Blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus)R
Breeds throughout except far south, migrant throughout.
*Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula)R
Breeds throughout.
*Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus)Rr
Breeds mostly southwest; first breeding record 2000. Increasing.
*Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater)R
Breeds throughout.
*Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius)R
Breeds south and west.
Bullock's Oriole (Icterus bullockii)A
One fall-winter record (1968).
*Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula)R
Breeds throughout except far northeast.
Scott's Oriole (Icterus parisorum)A
Three records: 2 spring and 1 spring-summer. One record (2002) in the last 10 years.
 
Family Fringillidae: Finches
Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla)A
Five records: 2 fall, 1 winter, and 2 winter-spring. One record (2001) in the last 10 years.
Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Leucosticte tephrocotis)C
Fifteen records: 1 fall, 1 fall-spring, 7 winter, 3 winter-spring, and 3 spring. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2008. Formerly Accidental.
Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator)R
Irruptive winter visitant mostly north.
*House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)R
Introduced in eastern North America. Permanent resident throughout.
*Purple Finch (Haemorhous purpureus)R
Breeds mostly north, migrant and winter visitant throughout.
Cassin's Finch (Haemorhous cassinii)A
One fall record (1987).
*Red Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra)R
Irruptive winter visitant mostly north-central and northeast; rarely breeds.
*White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera)R
Irruptive winter visitant mostly north-central and northeast; rarely breeds.
Common Redpoll (Acanthis flammea)R
Irruptive winter visitant mostly north and central.
Hoary Redpoll (Acanthis hornemanni)R
Rare winter visitant mostly north and central.
*Pine Siskin (Spinus pinus)R
Breeds mostly north, migrant and winter visitant throughout.
*American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis)R
Breeds throughout, winter visitant throughout.
*Evening Grosbeak (Coccothraustes vespertinus)R
Permanent resident north-central and northeast, irruptive winter visitant mostly north and central. Declining.
 
Family Passeridae: Old World Sparrows
*House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)R
Introduced in North America. Permanent resident throughout.
Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus)C
Introduced in North America. Seven records: 2 spring, 1 spring-summer, 2 summer, 1 summer-fall, and 1 winter. Recorded in 5 of the last 10 years, most recently 2007. Formerly Accidental.

Introduction

The nomenclature, sequence, and taxonomy of this Checklist are in accordance with the seventh edition of the American Ornithologistsí Union Check-list of North American Birds (1998) and its supplements.

This Checklist includes 439 species of birds officially recorded in Minnesota, and the symbol annotating each species on the list represents its status in the state:

R = Regular(314 species)
C = Casual(42 species)
A = Accidental(80 species)
E = Extirpated(2 species)
X = Extinct(1 species)

Definition of Status Terms Used for Species on the Checklist

Regular species are those for which there are Accepted records in ten or nine years out of the past ten years.
Casual species are those for which there are Accepted records in eight, seven, six, five, four, or three years out of the past ten years.
Accidental species are those for which there are Accepted records in two, one, or no years out of the past ten years.
Extirpated species are those that formerly occurred regularly in the state but disappeared and are not expected to recur.
Extinct species are those that formerly occurred in the state but no longer occur anywhere in the world.

Exceptions: By majority vote, the Committee may consider and designate the status of a species on an individual basis if it is felt that the number of years in which it has been recorded does not accurately reflect that speciesí current status. The Committee recognizes that certain species may be difficult to detect for a variety of reasons and that individual birds may return to the same location in one or more subsequent years. (For example, the Lazuli Bunting has been recorded in nine of the past ten years, normally a number reflecting Regular status, but a majority of the Committee feels that this species is more accurately classified as Casual.)

Other Definitions and Annotations

A record is considered Accepted if voted on and accepted by the Committee. A record may be either an identifiable and preserved specimen, photograph, video or audio recording, or a written report.

The ten-year base period on which the status of each species on this Checklist is determined is from 1999 through 2008. (The intention is to update the Checklist at five-year intervals, so that the next scheduled ten-year base period will be from 2004 through 2013.)

The subscript "s" (e.g., As) indicates a species for which there is no identifiable and preserved specimen, photograph, video or audio recording, or other physical evidence obtained in the state, but for which there is at least one sighting documented in writing that has been voted on and accepted unanimously by the Committee. Currently there are 5 such species: 4 Accidentals, and 1 Extirpated.

The subscript "o" (e.g., Ao) indicates a species for which there is reasonable uncertainty as to its origin and wildness, or uncertainty as to its natural occurrence or arrival in the state. (This does not include those birds which are known or considered to be of captive origin, or those which are known or considered not to have arrived in the state under their own power; such species are excluded from the Checklist.) Currently there are 4 such Accidental species.

The subscript "r" (e.g., Rr) indicates a species that is Regular but rare in Minnesota. Currently, there is no precise definition of a rare Regular, so for the purposes of this checklist it is defined as an annual species that is unpredictable and limited in occurrence or extremely local in distribution. It includes birds that move on and off the Casual species list as the checklist is updated. Note that this current list of 44 rare Regulars has been produced by members of the MOU's Electronic Communications Committee, and that the Minnesota Ornithologists' Union records Committee (MOURC) does not yet recognize this class of birds on its checklist.

An asterisk (*) indicates a species for which there is at least one confirmed breeding record for the state. Currently there are 267 such species: 249 Regulars, 9 Casuals, 7 Accidentals, 1 Extirpated, and 1 Extinct.

Breeding is defined as the laying of eggs in a context that indicates an effort to produce young. A breeding record is considered confirmed if any one of the following criteria is documented: nest with egg or eggshells; young in nest seen or heard; young unable to sustain flight seen away from nest; precocial young not yet full-sized.

Brief annotations are included for all species, though these are only intended to be basic guidelines as to status and expected occurrence. Ranges within the state are noted but are generalized (e.g., "northeast"). The last date of occurrence is given for Casual and Accidental species. Subscripts, superscripts, and asterisks may be applied to any species regardless of its status.

Included with the annotations, the conservation status at the state level as defined and designated by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, is also noted:

Where applicable, federal conservation status is also indicated as defined and designated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.